As wild animals are very dangerous and elephants are one of the famous wild animals – You may have interest about wild animals. Here we put some information about one of the wild animals – Elephants.
Wild animals : Elephants
There are two types of elephant, the Asian elephant and the African elephant. Indian elephants are included into Asian.
The African elephant is the largest of the two species left in the world. They have extremely large ears and both the males and the females grow tusks.
Asian elephants—strong, social, and intelligent—have been trained for thousands of years for use in transportation, labor, and ritual.
Elephants are the largest land-living mammal in the world. Both female and male African elephants have tusks but only the male Asian elephants have tusks. They use their tusks for digging and finding food.
An elephant herd can have 5-1,000 individuals and it is led by an old female, called matriarch. A herd can contain females and their calves. Young males are driven away from the family when mature, forming separate bachelor herds while mature bulls circulate freely from one clan to another in search for routing cows. The ties are so close amongst the member of a herd that elephants are known to mourn for their dead.
An elephant eats daily during the dry season 150-170 kg of food and drinks 80 liters of water, while during the rainy season they eat 200-280 kg of food daily.
Elephants ingest regularly soil containing iron and bicarbonate. Savanna elephants eat mainly grass and woody vegetation (especially during the dry season) while forest elephants eat mainly fruit and woody plants. Elephants digest cellulose with the help of protozoa in the cecum and the thick gut. In Kenya, conservationists even made paper from elephant dung.
They cannot survive more than 24 hours without drinking. That’s why elephants are never too far from a water source.
Female elephants are called cows. They start to have calves when they are about 12 years old and they are pregnant for 22 months.
An elephant can use its tusks to dig for ground water. An adult elephant needs to drink around 210 litres of water a day.
Elephants have large, thin ears. Their ears are made up of a complex network of blood vessels which with regulating an elephants temperature. Blood is circulated through their ears to cool them down in hot climates.
Water is also essential for bathing each evening. Elephants are good swimmers and will immerse themselves completely when they find water deep enough. By covering themselves with dirt, elephants protect themselves against insect bites.
If water is scarce during the dry season, elephants dig for water in the sandy bed of a river that has stopped flowing.
Elephant have only 4 functional teeth, 12 in (30 cm) long, which can be replaced 6 times. After the last replacement, the elephant can no longer feed properly.
Besides the trumpeting (expressing anger) and throaty rumbling similar to gargling which we hear, elephants also communicate through infrasounds with a frequency of 14-24 Hz. The advantage of the infrasounds is that they can cross vast distances, without being attenuated by the vegetation.
Female elephants live in a herd of about 10 individuals lead by the most experienced matriarch, whereas the males are normally solitary and move from herd to herd. The females in each herd help each other find food and care for calves. They do not lie down to sleep because of the excellent support their very straight legs give them.
Elephants communicate within their herds or between herds many kilometers away mostly using sounds too low for human ears to perceive and by stamping their feet. Within their herds, elephants are believed to have the same or similar levels of cooperation as chimpanzees. An elephant herd is considered one of the most closely-knit societies of any animal, and a female will only leave it if she dies or is captured by humans. Males will leave the herd as they become adolescent, around the age of 12, and live in temporary ‘bachelor herds’ until they are mature and live alone.